These sites contain basic statutes about open meetings and open records. Many states have multiple statutes that provide exemptions.
In addition to what you'll find below, be sure also to take a look at these State FOI Resources from NFOIC.
We will continue to update this information and appreciate any ideas you have in regard to additional content.
Please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org with any recommendations.
Also, be sure to check out the abundance of information available in the Open Government Guide from the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press at http://rcfp.org/-open-government-guide, and more information from our friends at WikiFOIA.
ALABAMA – ALASKA – ARIZONA – ARKANSAS –
CALIFORNIA – COLORADO – CONNECTICUT –
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA – DELAWARE – FLORIDA –
GEORGIA – HAWAII – IDAHO – ILLINOIS –
INDIANA – IOWA – KANSAS – KENTUCKY –
LOUISIANA – MAINE – MARYLAND –
MASSACHUSETTS – MICHIGAN – MINNESOTA –
MISSISSIPPI – MISSOURI – MONTANA –
NEBRASKA – NEVADA – NEW HAMPSHIRE –
NEW JERSEY – NEW MEXICO – NEW YORK –
NORTH CAROLINA – NORTH DAKOTA –
SOUTH CAROLINA – SOUTH DAKOTA –
VERMONT – VIRGINIA – WASHINGTON –
Open Meetings Law Al. Code §36-12-40 et seq.
Closed: Attorney-client meetings; discussions where "character or good name" of a person is involved; and grand jury and juvenile proceedings.
Open Records Law Al. Code §36-25A-1 et seq.
Exempt: Banking, juvenile court, hospital and probation reports; identity of Medicaid recipients; reports of suspected disease cases; tax and financial statements.
Open Meetings Law A.S. §44.62.310 et seq.
Closed: If they could prejudice the reputation or character of any person, or adversely affect government finances.
Open Records Law A.S. §09.25.110 et seq.
Exempt: Juvenile, adoption, medical and public health; library lending; names of victims of certain types of sexual assault; and some law enforcement records.
Open Meetings Law A.R.S. §38-431 et seq.
Closed: Salary, discipline, negotiations; planning; and legal consultation.
Open Records Law §39-121 et seq.
Exempt: Adoption records; disciplinary records of some professional groups; some medical records; some corrections department records; bank records; and trade secrets.
Open Meetings Law Ark. Code Ann. §25-19-101 et seq. including §25-19-105.
Closed: To consider employment, appointment, promotion, demotion, disciplining, or resignation of any public employee.
Open Records Law Ark. Code Ann. §25-19-101 et seq. including §25-19-106.
Exempt: Income tax records; medical, scholastic and adoption records; historical and archeological files; on-going law enforcement investigations; working papers, competitive advantage, and personnel records; and identities of undercover law enforcement officers.
Open Meetings Law
Brown Act: Gov't Code §54950-54960.5
Closed: Consultation on pending litigation; discipline of public employees; real estate transactions; and collective bargaining.
Link to Brown Act guide (Adobe Acrobat file)
Open Records Law
Calif. Public Records Act: Gov't Code §6250-6268
Exempt: Law enforcement investigations: litigation; and proprietary business data and personal privacy.
Link to CPRA guide (Adobe Acrobat file)
California Shield Law
The California Shield Law provides legal protections to journalists seeking to maintain the confidentiality of an unnamed source or unpublished information obtained during newsgathering. California Shield Law (Adobe/PDF file)
Open Records Law C.R.S. 24-72-201 et seq.
Exempt: At discretion of custodian: Records of investigations; test questions; details of research projects being conducted by the state; real estate appraisals; and motor vehicle license photographs. Custodian must Exempt: Medical data; personnel files; letters of reference; trade secrets; library records; addresses of public school children; and sexual harassment complaints under investigation.
Open Meetings Law C.R.S. 24-6-401 et seq.
Closed: Social gatherings and chance meetings; property matters; attorney conferences; negotiations with employee organizations; personnel; and student discipline.
Access to Public Records Survey — CRS 24-72-201, from LexisNexis in a frame, and from the official site of the State of Colorado
Open Meetings Law Conn. Gen. Stat. § 1-200 et seq.
Closed: Certain personnel matters; collective bargaining and negotiating sessions; administrative staff meetings; certain real estate transactions; security strategy; and pending litigation negotiations.
Open Records Law Conn. Gen. Stat. § 1-200 et seq.
Exempt: Fifteen total exemptions including: Personnel, medical and some law enforcement files; juvenile; some witness and victim identification records; pending litigation files; and real estate documents.
Connecticut's Freedom of Information Commission
Citizen's Guide to the Connecticut Freedom of Information Commission
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
District of Columbia Freedom of Information Act —§§ 2-531 et seq.
Open Meetings Law 29 Del. C. §10001 et seq.
Closed: Criminal investigations; employee evaluations; attorney-client discussions; collective bargaining; real estate transactions; student disciplinary hearings; and attorney-client meetings.
Open Records Law 29 Del. C. §10001 et seq.
Exempt: Personnel, medical, and student files; trade, investigative and intelligence documents; charitable donations; collective bargaining; and pending lawsuits.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF DELAWARE
Open Meetings Law Fla. Stat. sec. 286.011 et seq.
All meetings of boards and commissions open. Most collegial public bodies also open.
Open Records Law Fla. Stat. sec. 119.01 et. seq.
Exempt: More than 600 exemptions, check listed code citation.
Florida State Constitution (Amended 1992), Article 1, Section 24. Access to meetings and records made a constitutional right.
Open Records Law O.C.G.A. §50-18-70
Exempt: Investigations; certain real estate documents; attorney-client privilege documents; and names of handgun carriers. Electronic records open.
Open Meetings Law O.C.G.A. §50-14-1
Closed: Certain personnel matters, attorney consultations and real estate transactions.
Open Meetings Law Haw. Rev. Stat. §92-1 et seq.
Closed: To consider personnel information relating to those applying for professional or vocations licenses; hiring or firing of an employee; labor negotiations; property negotiations; attorney consultation; misconduct investigations; and public safety or security. State boards and commissions may meet in private if no commitment to vote is made or sought; also can meet with the governor as long as it does not relate to a quasi-judicial matter.
Open Records Law Haw. Rev. Stat. §91-1 et seq.
Exempt: Medical, psychiatric, or psychological information; criminal investigations; social services or welfare benefits information; personnel files; fitness to be granted a license; and personal recommendations and evaluations.
Open Meetings Law Idaho Code §67-2341 et seq.
Closed: Personnel matters; labor negotiations; matters of competitive trade or commerce with other states or nations; and pending or probable litigation.
Open Records Law Idaho Code §9-337 et seq.
Exempt: 40 exemptions, check code citation.
Illinois Open Meetings Act I. T. 5 C. 120. §§ 1-7.5 et seq
Closed: Numerous exemptions including disciplinary reviews, wrongful death determinations and performance reviews.
Illinois Freedom of Information Act 5 I.L.C.S. 140 et. seq.
Exemptions: Numerous exemptions including personnel information, disciplinary actions and vulnerability assessments.
Open Meetings Law I.C. §§5-14-1.5-1 et seq.
Closed: Numerous exemptions including: Collective bargaining, litigation strategy, and certain real estate transactions.
Open Records Law §§5-14-3-1 et seq.
Exempt: Trade secrets; university research; and certain educational and medical records. Discretionary exemptions include: Personnel files; diaries; journals; and personal notes.
Indiana Access to Criminal Proceedings — I.C. secs 5-14-2-1 to 5-14-2-8
Open Meetings Law Iowa Code §21.1 et seq.
Closed: 12 exemptions, check code citation.
Open Records Law Iowa Code §22.1 et seq.
State access law has 65 exemptions including personal information of public school students, hospital and medical records, trade secrets, peace officers' investigative reports, and attorney work related to litigation.
Open Meetings Law K.S.A. 75-4317 et seq.
Closed: Attorney consultations; personnel matters; employer-employee negotiations; trade secrets; and acquisitions of real estate property.
Open Records Law K.S.A. 45-215 et seq.
Exempt: 42 exemptions, check code citation.
Open Meetings Law K.R.S. 61.810 et seq.
Closed: Parole board; collective bargaining; certain real estate transactions; certain employee matters; certain business negotiations; and pending litigation involving a public agency.
Open Records Law K.R.S. 61.872 et seq.
Exempt: Personal information prohibited from disclosure for privacy reasons; some law enforcement records; some real estate documents, etc.
Open Meetings Law La.R.S. 42:4.1 et seq.
Closed: Discussion of the character, professional competence or health of a person; collective bargaining negotiations; discussions of security plans or devices; misconduct investigations; and natural disaster discussions.
Open Records Law La.R.S. 44:1 et seq.
Exempt: Pending criminal litigation; juvenile status offenders; sexual offense victims; security procedures; trade secrets; and some public employee information.
Open Meetings Law M.R.S.A. Sec. 403 et seq.
Closed: Certain personnel matters; attorney consultations; and student disciplinary considerations.
Open Records Law M.R.S.A. Sec. 402 et seq.
Exempt: Certain law enforcement investigation documents; records of legislature; and university administrative committees.
Open Meetings Law Md. State Gov't Code Ann. §§10-501 et seq.
Closed: Discussion of the individual characteristics of a person; certain personnel matters; collective bargaining; and real estate transactions.
Open Records Law Md. State Gov't Code Ann. §§10-611 et seq.
Exempt: Information that invades individual privacy; trade secrets; public policy development memos; and investigative materials.
Open Meetings Law G.L. c. 39, 23-24. State: G.L. c. 30, 11. County: G.L. c. 34, 9F. Municipality: G.L. c. 39, 23B.
Closed: Certain personnel matters; discussion of individual characteristics; collective bargaining; real estate negotiations; and disciplinary records.
Open Records Law G.L. c. 66, sec. 10.
Exempt: Information that would invade individual privacy; trade secrets; public policy development memos; and investigative materials.
Open Meetings Law Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. §15.261 et seq.
Closed: Collective bargaining; real estate transactions; and pending litigation discussions. Discussion of certain personnel matters and student records may be closed if relevant board votes to close. Michigan's Open Meetings Act (Adobe Acrobat File)
Open Records Law Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. §15.231 et seq
Exempt: Information deemed private; trade secrets; advisory communications with government agencies; attorney-client communications; medical counseling and psychological facts or appraisals; records of campaign committees; and some law enforcement records.
Open Meetings Law Minn. Statutes Chapter 13D
Closed: Attorney consultation; personnel matters; labor negotiations; internal affairs for law enforcement personnel; criminal investigations; medical data; welfare data; and hospital boards considering marketing strategy.
Open Records Law Minn. Statutes 13.01 et seq.
Exempt: Juvenile court records; and some personnel information.
Questions on MN Government Data Practices Act should be addressed to:
MN Dept. of Administration Information Policy Analysis Div.
Phone (651)296-6733 or (800)657-3721
Open Meetings Law Miss. Code Ann. 25-4-1 et seq.
Closed: Personnel matters; impending litigation; security personnel, plans, and devices; misconduct investigations; extraordinary emergencies posing immediate or irrevocable harm to persons or property; the purchase, sale or leasing of lands; admissions tests; and the location, relocation or expansion of a business or industry.
Open Records Law Miss. Code Ann 25-61-1 et seq.
Exempt: Personnel matters; employment applications; individual tax records; academic examination questions; appraisal information concerning the sale or purchase of property for public purposes; and attorney work product concerning litigation.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI
Open Meetings Law Mo. Code §610.010 et seq.
Closed: Legal actions; leasing, purchase or sale of real estate; personnel matters; the state militia; health examinations; testing materials; negotiations with employees; and sealed bids.
Open Records Law Mo. Code §610.023 et seq.
Exempt: Same as meetings law.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI
Open Meetings Law Montana Code 2-3-201 et seq.
Closed: Matters involving individual privacy and litigation between government entities and private parties. Citizens may file suit to overturn decisions made in allegedly illegal meetings. However, in 2006, the Montana Supreme Court ruled that citizens who challenge a decision must prove that it caused them "actual harm" over and above that of an ordinary taxpaper or citizen.
Open Records Law Montana Code 2-6-101 et seq.
The law gives citizens the right to inspect any "public writings" of the state except as prohibited by statute. Recent legislation removed several exemptions to the law, thus opening records, including death certificates.
Exempt: Records may be closed if the right to individual privacy clearly exceeds the public's right to know. However, the Montana Supreme Court has upheld challenges to statutes or executive branch decisions that closed records, ruling that the constitutional public right to know outweighed the individual privacy interest.
Open Meetings Law Nebraska Statutes §84-1409 et seq.
Closed: Collective bargaining; real estate purchases; litigation; to protect an individual's reputation; and security personnel and devices.
Open Records Law Nebraska Statutes §84-712 et seq.
Exempt: Personal information on student and personnel records; medical records; trade secrets; academic and scientific research; attorney work product; law enforcement or investigative records; some archeological records; and real estate appraisals.
Open Meetings Law N.R.S. 241 et seq.
Closed: To consider someone's character, alleged misconduct, or professional competence; and to conduct labor negotiations.
Open Records Law N.R.S. 239 et seq.
Exempt: Over 300 exemptions. Custodians must balance privacy issues with public interest.
Open Meetings Law R.S.A. Ch. 91-A et seq.
Closed: Certain personnel matters, real estate meetings and pending litigation.
Open Records Law R.S.A. Ch. 01-A et seq.
Exempt: Investigative files; parole and pardon board records; student records; and certain commercial/financial information.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE
Open Meetings Law N.J.S.A. 10:4 et seq.
Closed: Meetings that may result in invasion of privacy; real estate transactions; collective bargaining agreements; pending litigation; and personnel action.
Open Records Law N.J.S.A. 47:1A-1 et seq.
Exempt: Child abuse records; and pending investigation records.
New Jersey Division of Archives and Record Management — The Bureau of Records Management is responsible for carrying out the Division's mandate to ensure that government records are maintained in accordance with New Jersey's public records laws.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY
Open Meetings Law 10-15-1 N.M.S.A. 1978 et seq.
May be closed: Discussions of issuance, suspension, renewal or revocation of a license; limited (individual) personnel matters; deliberations in administrative adjudicatory proceeding relating to individual legal rights; personally identifiable student information; collective bargaining strategy; discussions of single-source purchases of more than more than $2,500; discussions of threatened or pending litigation subject to attorney-client privilege; acquisition or disposal of real property or water rights; discussions of strategic and long-range business plans or trade secrets of public hospital boards; discussions of gaming control board made confidential by gaming control act.
Open Records Law 14-2-1 NMSA 1978 et seq.
Exempt: Physical or mental examinations and medical treatment; letters of reference concerning employment, licensing or permits; matters of opinion in personnel files or students' cumulative files; law enforcement records that reveal confidential sources, methods, information or individuals accused but not charged; idenity of applicant or nominee for president of institution of learning but names of at least five finalists must be released at least 21 days before selection is made.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEW MEXICO
Open Meetings Law NY Pub. Off. Law sec. 103 et seq.
Closed: Litigation strategy discussions; collective bargaining; certain real estate transactions; certain personnel matters; and matters which would imperil public safety or law enforcement or disclose identity of informant. Open Meetings Law Advisory Opinion Index
Open Records Law NY Pub. Off. Law sec. 84 et seq.
Exempt: Disclosures resulting in unwarranted invasion of privacy or business/competition enterprises; names of sex crime victims; and some law enforcement records and inter/intra-agency materials.
Interpretations of the Laws by New York's Committee on Open Government
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
Open Meetings Law G.S. §143-318.9
Closed: 7 exemptions including: Attorney consultation; employee matters; and certain real estate transactions.
Open Records Law G.S. §132-1
Exempt: Confidential legal communications; criminal investigations; and intelligence information.
Open Meetings Law N.D.C.C. §44-04-19 et seq.
Closed: Attorney consultations during pending litigation; non-renewal hearings between school board and teacher; juvenile proceedings; and hiring/firing of college or university personnel and presidents by the State Board of Higher Education.
Open Records Law N.D.C.C. §44-04-18 et seq.
Exempt: Juvenile records; trade secrets; public employee medical and assistance records; workers compensation; unemployment; tax information; law enforcement investigation records; and most Department of Human Services records.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA
Open Meetings Law Ohio Rev. Code sec. 121.22 et seq.
Closed: Real estate transactions; certain personnel matters; certain law enforcement meetings; Adult Parole Authority; and certain medical board meetings.
Open Records Law Ohio Rev. Code sec. 149.43 et seq.
Exempt: Personal bank records; medical records; adoption records; probation and parole records; and certain law enforcement investigative records.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF OHIO
Open Meetings Law OK Stat., tit. 25, §301 et seq.
Closed: Executive sessions of the State Banking Board and Oklahoma Savings and Loan Board; state judiciary, legislative, or administrative staffs meetings of public bodies; and some meetings of institutions of higher education and certain school board meetings.
Open Records Law OK Stat, tit. 51, §24A.1 et seq.
Exempt: If protected by state evidentiary privilege; real estate appraisals; personnel records; registration files of sex offenders; public officials' personnel notes; business-related bids; computer programs; medical market research; and certain educational records including student records.
Open Meetings Law O.R.S. 192.610 et seq.
Closed: Personnel matters; filling of a vacancy in elective office; misconduct investigations; conduct of medical staff at public hospitals; some labor negotiations; property negotiations; trade or commerce negotiations; and attorney consultations.
Open Records Laws O.R.S. 192.410 et seq.
Exempt: Records less than 75 years old containing information on the health care treatment of a living individual; impending litigation; trade secrets; criminal investigation materials; testing materials; real estate appraisals; personnel disciplinary action; and computer programs.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF OREGON
Open Meetings Law 65 Pa. Cons. Stat. Section 261 et. seq.
Closed: Attorney consultations; collective bargaining; certain personnel matters; and some real estate transactions.
Open Records Law 65 Pa. Stat. Section 66.1 et seq.
Exempt: Most investigative records; birth and death records; and accident reports. Also see:Office of Open Records
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA
Open Meetings Law R.I. Gen. Laws §§42-46-1
Closed: Certain personnel matters; collective bargaining; litigation; security; real estate transactions; school committees; student disciplinary hearings; and student records.
Open Records Law R.I. Gen. Laws §§38-2-1
Exempt: Presumption of disclosure with few exemptions.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND
Open Meetings Law S.C. Code Ann. §30-4-60
Closed: Certain personnel matters, criminal investigations, and some real estate transactions.
Open Records Law S.C. Code Ann. §30-4-10
Exempt: Pending investigation documents; confidential attorney communications; identification of informants; certain bank and business transactions; and income tax returns.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA
Open Meetings Law S.D.C.L. 1-25-1 et seq.
Closed: Legal matters; employee or student performance; labor negotiations; and pricing strategies by publicly-owned competitive businesses.
Open Records Law S.D.C.L. 1-27-1 et seq.
Exempt: Savings and loan association reports; school records; juvenile court records; adoption records; hospital licensing and inspection information; and medical research information.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA
Open Meetings Law Tenn. Code Ann. 8-44-102 et seq.
Closed: Labor negotiations; personnel matters; and discussions with an attorney regarding pending litigation.
Open Records Law Tenn. Code Ann. 10-7-503 et seq.
Exempt: Medical records of patients in state institutions; some investigative records; public school student records; and some economic development issues, such as land acquisition.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF TENNESSEE
Open Meetings Law Tex. Rev. Civ. Stat. Ann. art. 6252-17
Exempt: Over 30 exemptions including: Confidential information as defined by law; personnel information; litigation or settlement negotiations involving state, competition or bidding information; certain real estate information; certain legislative documents; certain investigation or prosecution documents; certain private communications of public office holders; certain trade or financial secrets; and student records.
Open Records Act Tex. Rev. Civ. Stat. Ann. art. 6252-17a
Closed: Attorney consultations; real estate transactions; hearings of the ethics commission; personnel and individual student matters; and emergency medical service quality reviews, etc.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF TEXAS
Open Meetings Law 52-4-1 et-seq.
Open Records Law 63-2-101 et seq.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF UTAH
Open Meetings Law 1 V.S.A. §§310 et seq.
Closed: Contract negotiations; employee matters; certain real estate matters; disciplinary records of public employees and students; and other records/documents exempted in Title 1, 317b; and discussions that would result in a clear and imminent peril to public safety.
Open Records Law 1 V.S.A. §§315 et seq.
Exempt: Twenty exemptions including: Personnel files; criminal investigation records; tax documents; and location of historical/archaeological sites.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF VERMONT
Open Meetings Law Va. Code Secs. 2.2-3707 – 3712
Closed: Terrorism activities precautions; some personnel matters, attorney consultations, real estate matters, student disciplinary matters, etc.
Open Records Law Va. Code Secs. 2.2-3704 -3706
Exempt: Some criminal investigations; some police reports; tax returns; medical records; personnel matters; real estate; attorney client privilege exemptions; and working papers.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF VIRGINIA
Open Public Meetings Act Wash. Rev. Code § 42.30.010 et seq.
Closed: Meetings about national security matters and site selection; acquisition of real estate; and personnel matters.
Public Records Act Wash. Rev. Code § 42.56 et seq.
Exempt: Personal student or patient information; employee files; and some investigative records.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON
Open Meetings Law W.Va. Code § 6-9A-1 et seq.
Closed: Some medical information; meetings on riots, personnel, discipline, suspension or expulsion of a student.
Open Records Law W.Va. Code § 29B-1-1 et seq.
Exempt: Trade secrets; information violating personal privacy; some exam data; some archaeological sites; and law enforcement records for internal use.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA
Open Meetings Law Wis. Stat. 19.81 et seq..
Closed: Certain negative or disciplinary personnel matters; personnel employment, promotion, compensation or performance evaluations; strategy for crime detection and prevention; to deliberate or negotiate the purchase of public properties; to consider financial, medical, social or personal histories or disciplinary data of specific persons that would likely have a substantial adverse affect upon the reputation of the person; and attorney consultations.
Open Records Law Wis. Stat. 19.31 et seq..
Exempt: Certain investigative records, computer programs and trade secrets; public library circulation records are confidential.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF WISCONSIN
Open Meetings Law Wyo. Stat. § 16-4-401 et seq.
Closed: Sessions regarding threats to security; personnel matters; parole board meetings regarding granting of parole; purchasing or leasing of property; and meetings regarding anonymous gifts to public agencies.
Open Records Law Wyo. Stat. § 16-4-201 et seq.
Exempt: Some law enforcement investigation records; testing materials; details of state institutions' research projects; labor negotiations; school board and university student disciplinary records; and medical records of publicly funded hospitals.
CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF WYOMING